ARMENIAN LANGUAGE, the language spoken by about 6 million Armenians. Most of them are residents of the Republic of Armenia, the rest live in the Diaspora on a vast territory from Central Asia to Western Europe. More than 100,000 Armenian speakers live in the United States.
The existence of Armenia was witnessed several centuries before the appearance of the first written monuments (5th century ad). The Armenian language belongs to the Indo-European family. The place of Armenian among other Indo-European languages was the subject of a long debate; it was suggested that Armenian could be a descendant of a language closely related to Phrygian (known from the inscriptions found on the territory of ancient Anatolia). The Armenian language belongs to the Eastern («Satem») group of Indo – European languages, and reveals some commonality with other languages of this group-Baltic, Slavic, Iranian and Indian. However, given the geographical location of Armenia, it is not surprising that the Armenian language is also close to some Western («kentum») Indo-European languages, especially Greek.
The Armenian language is characterized by changes in the field of consonantism. which can be illustrated by the following examples: lat. dens, Greek. o-don, Armenian. a-tamn «tooth»; lat. genus, Greek. genos, Armenian. CIN «birth». Promotion in Indo-European languages the accent on the penultimate syllable in Armenian led to the falling away of sardarnagar syllable; thus, proto-ébheret turned into ebhéret that gave the Armenian ebér.
The translators of the First Kiev Translation Agency provide translation services into Armenian from Russian, Ukrainian and English, as well as from other languages.
As a result of centuries-old Persian domination, many Persian words entered the Armenian language. Christianity brought with it Greek and Syrian words; in the Armenian lexicon there is also a large proportion of Turkish elements that penetrated over the long period when Armenia was part of the Ottoman Empire; there are a few French words borrowed in the era of the Crusades. The grammatical system of the Armenian language retains several types of nominal inflection, seven cases, two numbers, four types of conjugation and nine times. Grammatical gender, as in English, is lost.
The Armenian language has its own alphabet, invented in the 5th century ad. Mesrop Mashtots. One of the first written monuments is the translation of the Bible into the «classical» national language. Classical Armenian continued to exist as the language of the Armenian Church, and until the 19th century it was the language of secular literature. In modern Armenian there are two dialects: Eastern, which is spoken in Armenia and Iran; and Western, which is used in Asia Minor, Europe and the United States. The main difference between them is that in the Western dialect there was a secondary stunning of ringing explosive: b, d, g moved to p, t, k.