Azerbaijani language (self: azərbaycan dili, آذربايجان ديلی, Azerbajan Dili) is a language of the Azerbaijanis, one of starobasmanny Turkic languages, usually related to the South-West (Oghuz) group of the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family, but at the same time having the features characteristic of the languages of the Kypchak area.
The morphological structure of the Azerbaijani language is agglutinative, synthetic. The vocabulary consists of a significant number of Iranian and Arabic words. Phonetics has experienced the influence of Persian language.
During the XX century the Azerbaijani alphabet was changed four times. Currently, the Azerbaijanis are three types of letters: Arabia in Iran, Latin alphabet in Azerbaijan and in the Cyrillic alphabet — in Dagestan (Russia). In the past, the Azerbaijani language was known by different linguanima, but since the XIX century, is found present name. The modern literary Azerbaijani language was formed on the basis of Baku and Shamakhi dialects.
It is the state language of Azerbaijan and one of the state languages of Dagestan (Russia). It is also common in places of compact residence of Azerbaijanis in countries such as Iran (Iranian Azerbaijan) and Georgia (Kvemo-Kartli). The total number of speakers is 25-30 million people.
Before the accession of the Caucasus to Russia
Under the Safavids, the Azerbaijani language was variously called by both local and foreign languages. It was called kyzylbash (for example, the poet sadegi Afshar, as well as Abdol-Jamil Nasiri) and Turkmen (for example, the poet Navoi). The Portuguese at that time called it turkesco, the rest of the Europeans and the majority of Iranians — Turkish[K. 1] or Turks. The 17th-century Capuchin missionary Rafael du Mans used the expression «Turk Ajami»in relation to the Azerbaijani language. This term is used by some modern authors as a designation of the direct historical predecessor of the modern Azerbaijani language.
In the Russian Empire until the revolution, all Turkic languages, including Azerbaijani, were called simply «Tatar» languages. One is the symbol of Azerbaijan at the Russian authors, who visited in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the Caucasus was absent. For example, according to I. G. Gerber (C. 1690-1734), Azerbaijani is designated as «Tatar with Turkish» (description of the fact that the population of the Western side of the Caspian sea mainly says «in Turkish mixed with Tatar»); Guldenstedt (1745-1781) as «an adverb of the Tatar language» («the adverb of their Tatar language is almost completely similar to Turkish»); according to p. G. Butkov (1775-1857) — » Turkish «or» Turku «.
In the «Review of Russian possessions in the Caucasus» of 1836 not only the term «Tatar language», but also «Muslim language», and «Turkish language»are used for its designation. There is also «Transcaucasian Tatar».
A copy of «Grammar of Turkish-Tatar language» by M. Kazembek in the Museum of history of Azerbaijan (Baku)
Since the first half of the XIX century, one can observe some deviation from the simple name «Tatar» with the use of the definition of «aderbeydzhansky»in different forms. Thus, in the almanac «polar star» for 1825 was published the Azerbaijani fairy tale «Wooden beauty» (translated by O. Senkovsky), where there was a note «from the Tatar-aderbijan dialect». In his letter of 1831 to N. The Russian writer A. A. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky writes that he could not find anywhere «the hell» of the Russian dictionary. For the first time, scientifically substantiated and used the term «Azerbaijani language» the orientalist and the first Dean of the Faculty of Oriental languages of St. Petersburg University Mirza Kazembek — author of «Grammar of Turkish-Tatar language» (1839) and the «General grammar of Turkish-Tatar language» (1846), and he wrote «azerbayjanskiy». The Orientalist. Dorn in his review of «the Grammar of Turkish-Tatar language», addressed in 1841 the Academy of Sciences in connection with the performance of this work on competition Demidov prize, said: «Special recognition experts deserve the teachings of Derbent, and even more about a hitherto almost completely unknown, but now clarified by Mirza Kazem-Bek azerbaydzhanskom dialect, since both have pretty features that encourages further exploration, and mostly azerbayjanskiy, it is highly important for our Caucasian colleges».
In the Russian-language literature of the XIX century there are indications that the name of the Azerbaijani language is associated with the border Persian province. For example, traveled in 1852 along the North of Persia, I. N. Berezin not only used the term «azerbaidjanskoi dialect», but left the following remark: «In Azerbaijani dominated by a special dialect of the Turkic language called by the name of the region». In the encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus and Ephron T. XIII (1894) it was also said that the language is called by the name of the region in Persia.
Page from «the anthology Azerbaydzhanskogo Tatar adverbs» (1852). Comp. Vazeh and I. Grigoryev. First Kiev translation Agency provides translation services into Azerbaijani language from Russian, Ukrainian and English, as well as from other languages.
Since the second half of the 19th century, the publication of textbooks on the native language, compiled by figures of Azerbaijani education, where the name «aderbidjan»is used in various forms, has been growing. In 1852 came the «Tatar reader Azerbaydzhanskogo dialect» (comp. poet Vazeh and teacher of Oriental languages of the Tiflis gymnasium Yves. Grigoriev), in 1859, it was written, in 1861, published in St. Petersburg «the Textbook of the Tatar-azerbaydzhanskogo dialect» (comp. teacher of Oriental languages at Novocherkassk gymnasium Mirza Abulgasan Vezirov). For 1890-1895 years he published the «Complete tutorial of the Tatar language Caucasian-azerbaidzhanskogo dialect» S. M. Ganiev (in 4 parts), which withstood six editions (the last was published in 1922). In 1899, «brief grammar and syntax of the Turkic-Azerbaijani language» was published in Baku. Narimanova, and in 1913 in Erivan-» the Book of Turkic-Azerbaijani language » D. Mammadov.
In 1890, the borderline dictionary of the Azerbaijani language was published, where it was called «the Azerbaijani language».
Some representatives of the Azerbaijani intelligentsia are beginning to advocate for a more correct name of the language. Thus, in 1891 on the pages of the newspaper «Caspian (Azerbaijan.).»journalist Mammad Aga shakhtakhtinsky opposed to refer «Tatars» and proposes to call the language of the Transcaucasian Muslims «azerbaidzhanskom». Publisher of the newspaper «Keshkul (Azerbaijan.).»teacher of the Tiflis cadet school Jalal Effendi Unsized (Azerb.). he asked the Russian authorities to allow him to publish a newspaper called «Azerbaijan», arguing that
the indigenous Muslim population of Transcaucasia speaks the so-called Azerbaijani dialect and does not understand the Tatar language, which explains the Crimean and Kazan Tatars, and only a small class of newcomers speaks Persian and Arabic… in the types of satisfaction of this need, wanting to publish in Tiflis such a body, a new modern edition in the form of a newspaper with the permission of preliminary censorship called «Azerbaijan» in a simple Azerbaijani dialect.
The twentieth century
In the XIX — early XX century the name of the Azerbaijani-Tatar language was also used, but it was discarded and replaced sequentially by the terms: Turkic, Azerbaijani-Turkic and Azerbaijani.
On June 27, 1918 the state language of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was declared «Turkic language», but not always high-ranking Ministers used this name in their documents. For example, the military Minister S. Mehmandarov in the order for February 1919 wrote that «officers of other nationalities for the assimilation of command words in the Tatar language give a month».
Before the revolution, «Turkish» and «Turkic» were used synonymously. The consequences of the events of the 1920s in Turkey was that » Ottoman «was withdrawn from use and thus in the Russian language it was replaced by»Turkish». As for the term «Turkic», it was used only in relation to the Azerbaijani language. In the decree, ASTIC regarding «the nationalization of state institutions» and the order of the Azerbaijan revolutionary Committee on the organization Committee for the introduction of institutions of the Azerbaijan SSR office in the Azerbaijani language, specify «Turkic language». The very Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR of 1921 did not say a word about the language, but «Turkic»appears in the versions of the Constitution for 1931 and 1935. The same name is present in the Constitution of the ZSFSR of 1922 (in the section on the emblem and flag). As for academic literature, in the 1st edition of the BSE (1926) and the Small Soviet Encyclopedia (1928) there are two names-«Azerbaijani» and «Azeri» (according to the BSE as «Azeri dialect»).
Since the official documents contained names indicating the name of the Republic (for example, «citizen of the Azerbaijan SSR»), but the names «Turkic» and «Turk» were used in relation to the language and people, respectively, this created synonymous difficulties in the uniform naming of the emerging socialist nationality. In an effort to achieve such uniformity, resorted to phrases and composites to refer to the people and language. The latter included, for example, Azerbaijani-Turkish, Azerbaijani-Turkic and Azerbaijani-Turkic. The «bulky old-fashioned» of the latter, as the Soviet-Russian orientalist G. F. Blagov wrote, did not meet the then requirements. In connection with the discussion Of the draft Constitution of the USSR in 1936 ethnonymic terminology relating to the names of peoples and nationalities of the USSR, was ordered. Against this background, the official name «Azerbaijani language»was adopted among others. American historian Audrey Altstadt believes that the reason for this decision was the Soviet policy of differentiation of the Turkic peoples of the USSR from the Turkic peoples beyond its borders and among themselves. According to the authors of the Encyclopedia of Iran, the language was officially renamed from Turkic to Azerbaijani by order Of Stalin. The language itself is called «Azeri Turkish» (Azerbaijani Turkic), or simply «Azeri» (Azeri).
According to the Great Russian Encyclopedia, until 1939 the Azerbaijani language had the names «Turkic language» or «Turkic language of Azerbaijan». The Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR of 1937, as amended in 1956, proclaims the «Azerbaijani language» as the state language (until that time there was no article on the state language in the Constitution). The same is said in the Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR of 1978.
During the reign of the popular front of Azerbaijan on the state level, a policy on the replacement of the name «Azerbaijan» to «Turkic». Thus, in December 1992, the Parliament adopted the law on the state language, according to which the language was called not Azerbaijani, but Turkic. In the Constitution adopted in 1995, the state language is called Azerbaijani. The term «Turks» is still a common name of the Azerbaijani language in Iran. However, some authors believe that this name was superseded in Iranian Azerbaijan itself.