Сербско-хорватский язык

Сербско-хорватский язык, термин удобства, используемый для обозначения форм речи, используемых Сербов, Хорватов и других южнославянских групп (таких, как черногорцы и боснийцы, как мусульманские боснийцы известны). Термин сербохорватский был придуман в 1824 году немецким словарем и фольклористом Якобом Гриммом (см. Братья Гримм).

Терминология

Эти формы речи часто называют “языком”, но они также рассматриваются как отдельные языки: сербский, хорватский, а в последние годы также боснийский и черногорский. Ни одно из мнений не является полностью правильным или неправильным; понятие “язык” имеет несколько определений, и статус сербохорватского языка будет зависеть от принятого определения.

Первое киевское бюро переводов предоставляет услуги перевода на хорватский язык с русского, украинского и английского, а также с других языков.

В частности, следует отличать стандартные языки от местных диалектов. Каждый язык имеет свои местные разговорные формы, но не каждая группа в мире создала стандартный язык. Для того, чтобы сделать один, кто-то должен выбрать, какой из местных диалектов будет служить в качестве основы и какие слова и грамматические формы будут представлять правильное использование. Стандартные языки обычно, хотя и не всегда, имеют системы письма и используются в образовании, правительстве, издательском деле и средствах массовой информации. Стандартный язык может контролироваться авторитетным органом или стандарты могут устанавливаться школьными учителями, словарями и издателями.

Группировки, география и религия

Croatian

Среди южных славян “серб” и “хорват” — древние родовые названия. «Босния” и «Черногория» — географические названия, засвидетельствованные в Средние века. Большинство южнославянских областей находились под властью турецкой Османской империи с 1400-х по 1800-е годы. В течение этого времени сербская община кристаллизовалась вокруг Сербской Православной Церкви, в то время как римско-католические верующие на турецких землях и прилегающих австро-венгерских владениях все чаще стали использовать название “хорватский». Черногорцы также в основном поддерживали сербское православие и использовали оба названия: Черногорское и сербское. Османы, сами мусульмане, разделили и управляли населением в соответствии с религиозными общинами, что привело к укреплению национальной идентичности. Многие жители нынешней Боснии и Герцеговины приняли ислам, в то время как другие придерживались сербского православия или католицизма и стали называть себя “сербами” или “хорватами».

Croatian

В отношении диалектов, в районе есть три основные группы, названные Kajkavian, Chakavian, и Shtokavian после местоимения в значении “что” (Кай, Са, и što или šta, соответственно), хотя на трех диалектах различаются также в гласных, согласных звуков, словоформ и словаря. Сербия, Черногория и Босния и Герцеговина полностью Shtokavian. Хорватия использует Chakavian вдоль моря, Kajkavian на северо-западе вокруг столицы Загреба, и Shtokavian внутреннему.

Написание, Произношение и правописание

Croatian

Самая ранняя письменность в этой области была сделана не на одном из диалектов, а на другом славянском языке, старославянском. Это было стандартизировано около 860 г. н. э. ранними христианскими миссионерами для славян, которые создали для него алфавит, глаголический, по мнению некоторых, основанный на скорописи греческого языка. Второй алфавит, кириллица, чьи буквы сильно напоминают греческие буквы, датируется 900-х годов. Православные церкви славян использовали глаголицу, а впоследствии кириллицу в церковнославянских книгах, в то время как некоторые ранние хорватские католики веками использовали глаголицу как для церковнославянского, так и для местного хорватского языка.

Croatian

Стандартизация проходила по разным направлениям. Среди сербов один человек, Вук Стефанович Караджич, работал с 1814 по 1864 год, чтобы заменить предыдущий сербский и церковнославянский смешанный стиль письма прямым сербским и упростить кириллицу. В его алфавите 30 букв точно соответствуют пяти гласным и 25 согласным. В отличие от некоторых букв русского и других кириллических алфавитов, ни одна сербская кириллица никогда не обозначает последовательность согласных и гласных. Хорваты в течение нескольких столетий писали преимущественно латинскими буквами на всех трех видах диалекта (но читали публикации друг друга). В 1830-х годах редактор загребского журнала Людевит Гай призвал всех хорватов принять Штокавский язык в письменном виде, географически наиболее распространенный диалект и связь с другими народами региона. После обсуждений, продолжавшихся большую часть века, хорваты приняли это предложение, используя сербский словарь Караджича в качестве одного из своих авторитетных источников, хотя они продолжали использовать некоторые традиционные словари и, в частности, латинский алфавит, связанный с католицизмом и Западной Европой.

На протяжении всего XIX века сербы говорили о «сербском языке “и хорваты о” хорватском языке», хотя они закончили столетие стандартными формами, гораздо более похожими и взаимопонятными, чем раньше. Тем не менее, хорваты поддерживали любимую культурную практику пуризма, стремясь заменить иностранные слова старыми или новыми хорватскими. Для сербского univerzitet-университет, — хорватский сочетании све ‘все’ и učilište ‘место обучения’ выход sveučilište. Сербия, со своей стороны, приняла новый стандарт Вука Караджича и более простые кириллические буквы, но изменила одну деталь: во многих словах, где Караджич написал je или ije, Сербия использовала свое собственное произношение (здесь просто e), чтобы определить написание слова. Таким образом, в Хорватии, Боснии и Герцеговины, Черногории и mlijeko это слово означает “молоко”, но в Сербии это слово млеко.

«Сербохорватский» в 20 веке и после

Croatian

Политически, Сербия освободилась от Турции постепенно в течение 19-го века, в то время как большинство из Хорватии остались в Австро-Венгерской империи до Первой мировой войны И. По окончания войны, в 1918 году, Сербии, Хорватии, Боснии и Черногории было положить вместе, чтобы сформировать единую страну, по имени первого Королевства Сербов, Хорватов и словенцев, а потом Югославии. Чтобы еще больше подчеркнуть единство, правительственная политика должна была преуменьшить сербско-хорватские языковые различия, и Королевство даже выступило за совместный «сербско-хорватско-словенский» язык, хотя словенский тогда был (и остается) совсем другим языком.

Croatian

Во время Второй мировой войны Югославия была частично оккупирована державами Оси и частично удерживалась хорватским про-осевым государством, которое провозгласило исключительно хорватский язык. В 1945 году победоносные коммунистические партизаны под руководством Иосипа Броз Тито восстановили Югославию. Новое правительство сначала рассматривало хорватский и сербский как отдельные языки наряду со словенским и недавно стандартизированным македонским. Но вскоре он начал настаивать на объединении сербо-хорватского (или хорвато-сербского). На практике хорваты продолжают использовать латинский алфавит и некоторые—но не все—свои конкретно хорватские слова, в то время как сербы используют латиницу и кириллицу и терпимо относятся к словам иностранного происхождения.

После распада Югославии в начале 1990-х годов каждая из новых стран начала устанавливать свои собственные стандарты использования языка, и термин “сербохорватский” вышел из официального употребления. В языковых исследованиях он иногда до сих пор используется авторами за пределами региона, но BCS (что означает “боснийско-хорватско-сербский”) также стал популярным. В Сербии язык называется сербским, а кириллица поощряется за счет латыни. В Хорватии есть только хорватский; пуризм, включая практику запрещения некоторых слов из-за их реального или предполагаемого сербского происхождения, был сильным в 1990-х годах, хотя и несколько слабее после 2000 года. Специалисты по стандартизации хорватского языка больше не консультируются с сербскими учеными, а лингвисты в Сербии не обращаются за помощью к Хорватии.

Croatian

Черногория, даже после обретения независимости в 2006 году, по-прежнему разделяет мнение о том, называть ли свой язык сербским или черногорским. Некоторые ученые надеются отличить его от сербского, добавив две или три новые буквы в алфавит для черногорских согласных, но они не широко используются. На практике словарный запас Черногории в Сербии и кириллице предпочтительнее латинского, но, в отличие от сербского, Черногорское употребление сохраняет вышеупомянутое произношение je, ije.

Из бывших югославских государств Босния и Герцеговина находится в наиболее сложном языковом положении. Учитывая смешанное население (несколько хорватов, больше сербов и еще больше боснийцев), Дейтонские соглашения 1995 года предусматривали боснийскую, хорватскую и сербскую версии официальных документов. На практике они отличаются лишь несколькими словами и алфавитом (кириллица для боснийских сербов, латынь для других). Многие люди в Боснии и Герцеговине утверждают, боснийский (ли или не они составляют по официальным боснийским меркам), но язык стандартизаторов и в Хорватии, и в Сербии, настаивают на том, что, если есть такое явление, только босняки бы использовать его, и поэтому его следует называть боснийца.

Croatian

Таким образом, в XXI веке существуют два четко очерченных стандартных языка (хорватский и сербский) и еще два (боснийский и черногорский). Образованные ораторы из любой страны могут разговаривать с полным пониманием, сдерживаемым только несколькими повседневными словами и техническими терминами (так же, как британский ботинок и патока против американского багажника [автомобиля] и патоки). Соответственно, некоторые утверждают, что они говорят на одном сербско-хорватском языке. Но при написании нельзя следовать сербским и хорватским, или черногорским и боснийским языковым стандартам одновременно, поэтому на практике не существует единого сербско-хорватского стандарта.

Терминология китайского языка

Официальное китайское обозначение для основных веток китайский fāngyán (方言, буквально «региональная речь»), тогда как более тесно связанные разновидности в пределах их называют dìdiǎn fāngyán (地点方言/地點方言 «местные слова»). Общепринятое использование английского языка в китайской лингвистике заключается в использовании диалекта для речи определенного места (независимо от статуса) и диалектной группы для региональной группировки, такой как мандарин или Ву. Поскольку многообразия из разных групп не являются взаимопонятными, некоторые ученые предпочитают описывать У и другие как отдельные языки.  Джерри Норман назвал эту практику вводящей в заблуждение, указав, что Ву, который сам содержит много взаимно непонятных разновидностей, не может быть правильно назван одним языком по одному и тому же критерию и что то же самое верно для каждой из других групп.

Взаимная разборчивость рассматривается некоторыми лингвистами как основной критерий для определения того, являются ли разновидности отдельными языками или диалектами одного языка, хотя другие не считают ее решающей, особенно, когда культурные факторы мешают, как это происходит с китайцами. Как объясняет Кэмпбелл (2008), лингвисты часто игнорируют взаимную разборчивость, когда разновидности разделяют разборчивость с центральным разнообразием (т. е. престиж разнообразие, например, стандартный мандарин), так как вопрос требует некоторой осторожной обработки, когда взаимная разборчивость несовместима с языковой идентичностью. Первое киевское бюро переводов предоставляет услуги перевода на китайский язык с русского, украинского и английского, а также с других языков. Джон Дефрансис утверждает, что неуместно называть Мандарин, Ву и так далее «диалектами», потому что взаимная неразборчивость между ними слишком велика . С другой стороны, он также возражает против рассмотрения их как отдельных языков, поскольку это неправильно подразумевает набор разрушительных «религиозных, экономических, политических и других различий» между носителями, которые существуют, например, между французскими католиками и английскими протестантами в Канаде, но не между носителями кантонского и мандаринского языков в Китае из-за почти непрерывной истории централизованного правительства Китая.

Из-за трудностей, связанных с определением различий между языком и диалектом, были предложены другие термины: ISO 639-3 следует Этнологу при присвоении кодов отдельных языков 13 основным подразделениям, в то время как Китайский в целом классифицируется как «макроязык». Другие варианты включают в себя просторечие, рать regionalect, topolect, и разнообразие.

Большинство китайцев рассматривают разговорные разновидности как один язык, потому что говорящие имеют общую культуру и историю, а также общую национальную идентичность и общую письменную форму. для китайских националистов идея китайского языка как языковой семьи может означать, что китайская идентичность гораздо более фрагментирована и разобщена, чем есть на самом деле, и как таковая часто рассматривается как культурно и политически провокационная. Кроме того, на Тайване он тесно связан с тайваньской независимостью, [править] некоторые из сторонников которых продвигают местный тайваньский сорт хоккиен.

Azerbaijani language

Azerbaijani language (self: azərbaycan dili, آذربايجان ديلی, Azerbajan Dili) is a language of the Azerbaijanis, one of starobasmanny Turkic languages, usually related to the South-West (Oghuz) group of the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family, but at the same time having the features characteristic of the languages of the Kypchak area.

Azerbaijani language

The morphological structure of the Azerbaijani language is agglutinative, synthetic. The vocabulary consists of a significant number of Iranian and Arabic words[16]. Phonetics has experienced the influence of Persian language.

During the XX century the Azerbaijani alphabet was changed four times. Currently, the Azerbaijanis are three types of letters: Arabia in Iran, Latin alphabet in Azerbaijan and in the Cyrillic alphabet — in Dagestan (Russia). In the past, the Azerbaijani language was known by different linguanima, but since the XIX century, is found present name. The modern literary Azerbaijani language was formed on the basis of Baku and Shamakhi dialects.

It is the state language of Azerbaijan and one of the state languages of Dagestan (Russia). It is also common in places of compact residence of Azerbaijanis in countries such as Iran (Iranian Azerbaijan) and Georgia (Kvemo-Kartli). The total number of speakers is 25-30 million people.

Azerbaijani language

Before the accession of the Caucasus to Russia
Under the Safavids, the Azerbaijani language was variously called by both local and foreign languages. It was called kyzylbash (for example, the poet sadegi Afshar, as well as Abdol-Jamil Nasiri) and Turkmen (for example, the poet Navoi). The Portuguese at that time called it turkesco, the rest of the Europeans and the majority of Iranians — Turkish[K. 1] or Turks. The 17th-century Capuchin missionary Rafael du Mans used the expression «Turk Ajami»in relation to the Azerbaijani language. This term is used by some modern authors as a designation of the direct historical predecessor of the modern Azerbaijani language.

In the Russian Empire until the revolution, all Turkic languages, including Azerbaijani, were called simply «Tatar» languages. One is the symbol of Azerbaijan at the Russian authors, who visited in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the Caucasus was absent. For example, according to I. G. Gerber (C. 1690-1734), Azerbaijani is designated as «Tatar with Turkish» (description of the fact that the population of the Western side of the Caspian sea mainly says «in Turkish mixed with Tatar»); Guldenstedt (1745-1781) as «an adverb of the Tatar language» («the adverb of their Tatar language is almost completely similar to Turkish»); according to p. G. Butkov (1775-1857) — » Turkish «or» Turku «.

XIX century
In the «Review of Russian possessions in the Caucasus» of 1836 not only the term «Tatar language», but also «Muslim language», and «Turkish language»are used for its designation. There is also «Transcaucasian Tatar».

A copy of «Grammar of Turkish-Tatar language» by M. Kazembek in the Museum of history of Azerbaijan (Baku)
Since the first half of the XIX century, one can observe some deviation from the simple name «Tatar» with the use of the definition of «aderbeydzhansky»in different forms. Thus, in the almanac «polar star» for 1825 was published the Azerbaijani fairy tale «Wooden beauty» (translated by O. Senkovsky), where there was a note «from the Tatar-aderbijan dialect». In his letter of 1831 to N. The Russian writer A. A. Bestuzhev-Marlinsky writes that he could not find anywhere «the hell» of the Russian dictionary. For the first time, scientifically substantiated and used the term «Azerbaijani language» the orientalist and the first Dean of the Faculty of Oriental languages of St. Petersburg University Mirza Kazembek — author of «Grammar of Turkish-Tatar language» (1839) and the «General grammar of Turkish-Tatar language» (1846), and he wrote «azerbayjanskiy»[29]. The Orientalist. Dorn in his review of «the Grammar of Turkish-Tatar language», addressed in 1841 the Academy of Sciences in connection with the performance of this work on competition Demidov prize, said: «Special recognition experts deserve the teachings of Derbent, and even more about a hitherto almost completely unknown, but now clarified by Mirza Kazem-Bek azerbaydzhanskom dialect, since both have pretty features that encourages further exploration, and mostly azerbayjanskiy, it is highly important for our Caucasian colleges».

In the Russian-language literature of the XIX century there are indications that the name of the Azerbaijani language is associated with the border Persian province. For example, traveled in 1852 along the North of Persia, I. N. Berezin not only used the term «azerbaidjanskoi dialect», but left the following remark: «In Azerbaijani dominated by a special dialect of the Turkic language called by the name of the region». In the encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus and Ephron T. XIII (1894) it was also said that the language is called by the name of the region in Persia[33].

Page from «the anthology Azerbaydzhanskogo Tatar adverbs» (1852). Comp. Vazeh and I. Grigoryev. First Kiev translation Agency provides translation services into Azerbaijani language from Russian, Ukrainian and English, as well as from other languages.
Since the second half of the 19th century, the publication of textbooks on the native language, compiled by figures of Azerbaijani education, where the name «aderbidjan»is used in various forms, has been growing. In 1852 came the «Tatar reader Azerbaydzhanskogo dialect» (comp. poet Vazeh and teacher of Oriental languages of the Tiflis gymnasium Yves. Grigoriev), in 1859, it was written, in 1861, published in St. Petersburg «the Textbook of the Tatar-azerbaydzhanskogo dialect» (comp. teacher of Oriental languages at Novocherkassk gymnasium Mirza Abulgasan Vezirov). For 1890-1895 years he published the «Complete tutorial of the Tatar language Caucasian-azerbaidzhanskogo dialect» S. M. Ganiev (in 4 parts), which withstood six editions (the last was published in 1922). In 1899, «brief grammar and syntax of the Turkic-Azerbaijani language» was published in Baku. Narimanova, and in 1913 in Erivan-» the Book of Turkic-Azerbaijani language » D. Mammadov.

In 1890, the borderline dictionary of the Azerbaijani language was published, where it was called «the Azerbaijani language».

Some representatives of the Azerbaijani intelligentsia are beginning to advocate for a more correct name of the language. Thus, in 1891 on the pages of the newspaper «Caspian (Azerbaijan.).»journalist Mammad Aga shakhtakhtinsky opposed to refer «Tatars» and proposes to call the language of the Transcaucasian Muslims «azerbaidzhanskom». Publisher of the newspaper «Keshkul (Azerbaijan.).»teacher of the Tiflis cadet school Jalal Effendi Unsized (Azerb.). he asked the Russian authorities to allow him to publish a newspaper called «Azerbaijan», arguing that

the indigenous Muslim population of Transcaucasia speaks the so-called Azerbaijani dialect and does not understand the Tatar language, which explains the Crimean and Kazan Tatars, and only a small class of newcomers speaks Persian and Arabic… in the types of satisfaction of this need, wanting to publish in Tiflis such a body, a new modern edition in the form of a newspaper with the permission of preliminary censorship called «Azerbaijan» in a simple Azerbaijani dialect.

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The twentieth century
In the XIX — early XX century the name of the Azerbaijani-Tatar language was also used, but it was discarded and replaced sequentially by the terms: Turkic, Azerbaijani-Turkic and Azerbaijani.

On June 27, 1918 the state language of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was declared «Turkic language», but not always high-ranking Ministers used this name in their documents. For example, the military Minister S. Mehmandarov in the order for February 1919 wrote that «officers of other nationalities for the assimilation of command words in the Tatar language give a month».

Before the revolution, «Turkish» and «Turkic» were used synonymously. The consequences of the events of the 1920s in Turkey was that » Ottoman «was withdrawn from use and thus in the Russian language it was replaced by»Turkish». As for the term «Turkic», it was used only in relation to the Azerbaijani language. In the decree, ASTIC regarding «the nationalization of state institutions» and the order of the Azerbaijan revolutionary Committee on the organization Committee for the introduction of institutions of the Azerbaijan SSR office in the Azerbaijani language, specify «Turkic language». The very Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR of 1921 did not say a word about the language, but «Turkic»appears in the versions of the Constitution for 1931 and 1935[43]. The same name is present in the Constitution of the ZSFSR of 1922 (in the section on the emblem and flag). As for academic literature, in the 1st edition of the BSE (1926) and the Small Soviet Encyclopedia (1928) there are two names-«Azerbaijani» and «Azeri» (according to the BSE as «Azeri dialect»).

Since the official documents contained names indicating the name of the Republic (for example, «citizen of the Azerbaijan SSR»), but the names «Turkic» and «Turk» were used in relation to the language and people, respectively, this created synonymous difficulties in the uniform naming of the emerging socialist nationality. In an effort to achieve such uniformity, resorted to phrases and composites to refer to the people and language. The latter included, for example, Azerbaijani-Turkish, Azerbaijani-Turkic and Azerbaijani-Turkic. The «bulky old-fashioned» of the latter, as the Soviet-Russian orientalist G. F. Blagov wrote, did not meet the then requirements. In connection with the discussion Of the draft Constitution of the USSR in 1936 ethnonymic terminology relating to the names of peoples and nationalities of the USSR, was ordered. Against this background, the official name «Azerbaijani language»was adopted among others[43]. American historian Audrey Altstadt believes that the reason for this decision was the Soviet policy of differentiation of the Turkic peoples of the USSR from the Turkic peoples beyond its borders and among themselves. According to the authors of the Encyclopedia of Iran, the language was officially renamed from Turkic to Azerbaijani by order Of Stalin[51]. The language itself is called «Azeri Turkish» (Azerbaijani Turkic), or simply «Azeri» (Azeri).

According to the Great Russian Encyclopedia, until 1939 the Azerbaijani language had the names «Turkic language» or «Turkic language of Azerbaijan»[53]. The Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR of 1937, as amended in 1956, proclaims the «Azerbaijani language» as the state language (until that time there was no article on the state language in the Constitution). The same is said in the Constitution of the Azerbaijan SSR of 1978.

During the reign of the popular front of Azerbaijan on the state level, a policy on the replacement of the name «Azerbaijan» to «Turkic». Thus, in December 1992, the Parliament adopted the law on the state language, according to which the language was called not Azerbaijani, but Turkic. In the Constitution adopted in 1995, the state language is called Azerbaijani. The term «Turks» is still a common name of the Azerbaijani language in Iran. However, some authors believe that this name was superseded in Iranian Azerbaijan itself.

Armenian language

ARMENIAN LANGUAGE, the language spoken by about 6 million Armenians. Most of them are residents of the Republic of Armenia, the rest live in the Diaspora on a vast territory from Central Asia to Western Europe. More than 100,000 Armenian speakers live in the United States.

The existence of Armenia was witnessed several centuries before the appearance of the first written monuments (5th century ad). The Armenian language belongs to the Indo-European family. The place of Armenian among other Indo-European languages was the subject of a long debate; it was suggested that Armenian could be a descendant of a language closely related to Phrygian (known from the inscriptions found on the territory of ancient Anatolia). The Armenian language belongs to the Eastern («Satem») group of Indo – European languages, and reveals some commonality with other languages of this group-Baltic, Slavic, Iranian and Indian. However, given the geographical location of Armenia, it is not surprising that the Armenian language is also close to some Western («kentum») Indo-European languages, especially Greek.

The Armenian language is characterized by changes in the field of consonantism. which can be illustrated by the following examples: lat. dens, Greek. o-don, Armenian. a-tamn «tooth»; lat. genus, Greek. genos, Armenian. CIN «birth». Promotion in Indo-European languages the accent on the penultimate syllable in Armenian led to the falling away of sardarnagar syllable; thus, proto-ébheret turned into ebhéret that gave the Armenian ebér.

The translators of the First Kiev Translation Agency provide translation services into Armenian from Russian, Ukrainian and English, as well as from other languages.

As a result of centuries-old Persian domination, many Persian words entered the Armenian language. Christianity brought with it Greek and Syrian words; in the Armenian lexicon there is also a large proportion of Turkish elements that penetrated over the long period when Armenia was part of the Ottoman Empire; there are a few French words borrowed in the era of the Crusades. The grammatical system of the Armenian language retains several types of nominal inflection, seven cases, two numbers, four types of conjugation and nine times. Grammatical gender, as in English, is lost.

The Armenian language has its own alphabet, invented in the 5th century ad. Mesrop Mashtots. One of the first written monuments is the translation of the Bible into the «classical» national language. Classical Armenian continued to exist as the language of the Armenian Church, and until the 19th century it was the language of secular literature. In modern Armenian there are two dialects: Eastern, which is spoken in Armenia and Iran; and Western, which is used in Asia Minor, Europe and the United States. The main difference between them is that in the Western dialect there was a secondary stunning of ringing explosive: b, d, g moved to p, t, k.

For/To Arabic translation

ARABIC, the generalized name of the various dialects and dialects spoken by the Arabs (hereinafter these numerous oral-colloquial forms are called spoken Arabic, abbreviated PARADISE), as well as their common literary language (hereinafter abbreviated BARKING; abroad is also used the term «standard Arabic»). Belongs to the Afro-Asiatic language macrofamily. It is the existence of BARKING as a common supra – dialect form and its high prestige (first of all, it is the language of the Koran, as well as a huge literature in terms of volume and time of existence) in combination with the General ethnic consciousness that determines the recognition of highly different Arab territorial dialects – a total of more than 30-a single language.

HISTORY OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE AND ITS SOCIOLINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS

References to the peoples of the Arabian desert, called «Arabs», are found in the military Assyrian Chronicles of 8-7 centuries BC, in the biblical texts of the 9th century BC, in the epigraphic texts of the ancient States of South Arabia (I Millennium BC – ser. I Millennium BC), ancient authors (e.g., Herodotus, 5th century BC), early medieval Byzantine and Syriac sources. As applied to the Arabic language, this name was noted in the 3rd century BC in Hebrew sources in the form of as . For native speakers themselves, the name «Arabs» and «Arabic» for themselves and their language has been fixed since the emergence and spread of Islam. The first use of the name «Arabic» in Arabic sources is noted in the Quran (ser. 7th century BC) in the form (Sura XVI, verse 103/105 and a few others), which means ‘language of the Arabic-clear/clear’.

The Arabic language spoken in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, Egypt, Sudan, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Western Sahara, Somalia, Djibouti, the Republic of Chad. «Islands» dialects of the Arabic language are also found in the territories of neighboring African States, Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia (Uzbekistan). The literary form of the Arabic language is the official language of all Arab countries, one of the official and working languages of the UN. The Maltese dialect of Arabic has a literary and written form other than BARKING, and is the only Arabic dialect that is considered an independent language; in Malta, it has the status of a state language. According to various sources, the total number of the Arabic-speaking population currently ranges from 190 to 250 million people.

It is assumed that in the first centuries of our era, the Arabic language was a set of closely related tribal dialects, common in the Central and Northern parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Along with tribal and territorial dialects, there was a single form of poetic language. The works of tribal poets were composed and passed from tribe to tribe and from generation to generation. At the same time, a single oral form of the sacred language of priests and diviners was formed. Subsequently, the processed oral forms of a single inter-tribal language became the basis for the formation of the literary-written common Arabic language.

The first written monument of pan-Arab language of the Koran, written in the middle of the 7th century BC Sacred text of the Koran has led to the preservation of all its linguistic characteristics without significant changes until the present time. In 8-9 centuries BC were recorded and monuments oral tribal poetry. The literary form of the language during the 8-10 centuries ad is improved in the written sphere in scientific and educated circles of society. In connection with the consolidation of Arab society, the formation of the Muslim community, the spread of Islam, the formation of the state, the administration and the army, the spoken Arabic language of the koiné type is also developing.

Along with the development of the standard literary form of the Arabic language, the direct descendants of the ancient tribal dialects continue to function in the Arabic-speaking environment. The spread of the Arabs in the 7th-9th centuries in non-Arab areas of Syria, Mesopotamia, Palestine, Egypt and North Africa and on the Iberian Peninsula, Iran and Central Asia leads to the formation of new local territorial dialects of the Arabic language are ancient tribal dialects.

Currently, Arabic dialects are classified according to two main parameters – social and territorial. According to their social characteristics, they are divided into nomadic and sedentary, and the latter, in turn, into urban and rural. The social division of dialects is superimposed by geographical division. Geographically, modern Arabic dialects are divided into two large groups: Eastern (Mashriq), consisting of four subgroups – Mesopotamian, Arabian, Central Arab and Egyptian-Sudanese, and Western (Maghreb, or North African). The Eastern group includes the «island» Arabic dialects of Central Asia.

Medieval Arab sources indicate that the discrepancy between the literary Arabic language and its dialectically fragmented colloquial form by the 10th century was observed in all Arabic-speaking territories. In the future, BARKING becomes the language of educated layers of society. The classical heritage of LAIA has a world significance and is represented by a huge body of Arabic poetry, artistic, historical and geographical prose, translations of ancient scientific works and his own works on astronomy, mathematics, medicine and other exact and natural Sciences, philosophy, theology, law, linguistics. Currently, BARKING operates in the religious sphere (not only in the Arab, but also throughout the Muslim world), in the media, in the administrative, scientific and literary spheres of activity, in the field of education.

Verbally spoken form (of PARADISE) presented in each case, the local dialect, everyday serving areas of communication at all levels: family, production, trade, the economy and on the street; it has long been used in folklore (for example, the texts of the tales of 1001 nights, written in the 14-16 centuries in Egypt, are characterized by the characteristics of the oral colloquial speech of city type).

This co-existence of two structurally different forms of language, contrasted as «high» and «low», in sociolinguistics is called diglossia. In contrast to bilingualism (bilingualism), in a situation of diglossia selection of one of the forms of the language (and sometimes one of the two languages) is not determined by which of these forms or which of these languages allows to better achieve the goals of interpersonal communication in a bilingual (or multilingual in the case of multilingualism) communication, and the subject of the question or the situation of communication: one form is used to talk about things, serious and sublime in situations of a formal and solemn; the second – in all others, not only educated, but also, to the best of their ability, all segments of society (BARKING is taught in all systems of public education). Diglosia is characteristic of the entire Arab world and is recognized as a problem with respect to the way in which there are different points of view.

A similar relationship has existed for several centuries between Church Slavonic and Russian in Russia and exists in a number of other regions of the world; however, in the Arab world the situation is more difficult, if only because BARKING is not only a «sublime» language, but also a means of communication of immigrants from different parts of the Arab world and its environment. In addition, the current language situation in the Arab world is characterized by complex dynamics. Political and economic integration in each of the Arab countries leads to the formation on the basis of the prestigious (most often – the capital) dialect of some local Coyne, which serves as a means of communication between the speakers of different dialects. Interstate communication, strengthening of economic and cultural contacts between the regions leads to the formation of more General forms of Coyne – the so-called regional everyday-spoken languages. Along with this development, «from below» there is a process of interaction between BARKING and PARADISE, resulting in the formation of the so-called «middle» or «third» language, which loses a number of grammatical features of BARKING, but has no pronounced signs of any particular local dialect. Some regional phonetic features are also observed in the oral form of BARKING.

Some writers as an experiment introduced into their works direct speech characters and dialogues in the local dialect. In Egyptian drama presents a number of plays in Egyptian dialect. Cinematography, some special radio programs, television, given the audience, also appeal to PARADISE.

The main territorial dialects of the Arabic language, such as Iraqi, Syro-Palestinian, Egyptian, dialects of the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa, have their rather pronounced signs on the phonetic-morphological and lexical levels. The degree of mutual understanding between the speakers of different dialects is relative and subjective. As a rule, it increases with the contacts of neighboring dialects and weakens with the contacts of representatives of the opposite outskirts of the Arab world. Understanding is also influenced by the conditions and topics of the conversation. Purely local or professional subjects (national cuisine, local economy, life, customs, etc., i.e. all that is characterized by the use of local vocabulary and expressions) weakens mutual understanding and requires explanation. On the contrary, socio-political and cultural themes (which are largely based on General literary vocabulary and expressions) provide a higher degree of mutual understanding.

In the future, the article will focus mainly on BARKING (in some cases referred to simply as Arabic).

HISTORY OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE AND ITS CULTURAL CONTEXT
The most important milestones in the history of the Arabic language are the emergence of Islam and the development of its own writing (7 century ad). The first epigraphic (mainly on stone) monuments of the Arabic language are reports of the movements of fellow tribesmen, shepherds with herds of camels, as well as tombstones and dedicatory inscriptions. In the pre-Islamic period in these inscriptions was used by Nabataean script (derived from the Aramaic), or a variant of the South Arabian (Sabaean) of the font. In its final form, the Arabic script was formed on the basis of the Nabataean script during the Qur’an records (from the mid-7th century). ad) and further development of writing culture. Arabic writing is a system of signs consisting of 28 letters that represent only consonants. For marking three long vowels are three consonants, called ‘alif, waw and ya. Special Superscript and subscript icons are used to denote short vowels, double consonants, and the absence of vowels. The direction of writing from right to left. Depending on the position in the word or phrase, many letters have different styles: isolated, initial, middle and final. Some pairs of letters on the letter form the so-called ligatures (fused lettering like & from Latin-French et ‘and’ or @ from the English. at ‘in’). Arabic has several varieties: kufi (fancy and decorative), thuluth, hands, Nasta’liq, diwani, Maghribi, Naskh. For typesetting used Naskh.

The period of 8-12 centuries in the history of the Arabic language is characterized by its unification, standardization, development of literary and written genres and styles, development of classical poetry, artistic and scientific prose. Arabic is becoming the international language of literature and science in the Middle East. It create their works of the largest scientists of the medieval East: al-Farabi (870-950) from Turkestan, Avicenna (Ibn Sina, 980-1037), a native of Bukhara, al-Biruni (973 – CA. 1050) from Khorezm, averroes (Ibn Rushd, 1126-1198), a native of Andalusia, and many others.

The next turning period in the development and modernization of the Arabic language was the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, when the economic contacts of the Arab East with the West intensified. The development of book printing, the emergence of the press and, accordingly, new genres of journalism, the emergence of new fiction, drama and poetry are becoming an important factor in the development of the Arabic language and its adaptation to the new requirements of social, cultural and scientific life. The development of new media and communication in the 20th century contributes to the further modernization of the Arabic language.

The cultural and historical influence of the Arabic language can be traced in many languages of Asia and Africa. This was facilitated by the spread of Islam, as well as the high cultural status of the BARKING, which has a developed system of General and special terminology for many areas of social, scientific and cultural life.

A considerable number of Arabic words by origin is available in the Russian language, where they came, as a rule, through intermediary languages: Latin, Western European, Persian, Turkish. In addition to the exoticism type Jinn, Jihad, the vizier, the Qadi, and so on., Arab in origin are some names of stars and constellations (Aldebaran, Altair – from Arab. ‘al=Dabaran,’ al=TA’ir), a number of scientific terms (algebra, alcohol – through Spanish, digit, zero – through European, from Arab. ‘zero’; the algorithm — from the Latinized form of the name mathematics al-Khorezm), the name of the military rank of Admiral (borrowed in Russian from the Dutch and going back to the Arabic ‘amiru l=bahri ‘Emir of the sea’, and from the «sea» in the form of the word nothing left, but as a result of «folk etymology», linking the word with the Latin Admiral ‘amaze’ and its derivatives in the romance languages, there was a sound d) and others are quite diverse in meaning of the word.

In turn, the early monuments of the Arabic language indicate a wide layer of cultural borrowings from the neighboring Semitic languages of South Arabia, from the Aramaic languages of Syria and Mesopotamia, from the middle Persian, Greek and Latin. Later there are borrowings from Persian and Turkish. The modern period is characterized by an active penetration into the Arabic vocabulary of Western European technical terminology. Despite the puristic activity of the Arabic language academies in many countries, new international scientific and technical terms penetrate into the modern Arabic language, standard word combinations and phrases typical for the press and mass media are formed.

THE PLACE OF ARABIC LANGUAGE IN THE GENEALOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES
Arabic is part of the Semitic branch of the afroasiatic (or Semitic-Hamitic; this widespread name is now considered obsolete) language macro-family. According to the traditional classification, the Arabic language belongs to the South Semitic group of languages, combining it with the ancient epigraphic languages of South Arabia and with the ephiosemite languages spoken in Ethiopia and Eritrea. Currently, as a result of the discovery of new materials on ancient and modern Semitic languages, as well as the introduction of new methods in the comparative-historical semitology, in particular the method of glottochronology (see. World LANGUAGES), developed a more accurate classification of Semitic languages, according to which the Arabic language with dialects is an independent South-Central group. With the ancient South Arabian languages and with the languages of Ethiopia (Geez, Tigre, Tigrinya), as well as with modern South Arabian (Mehri, Shahri, sokotri) the Arabic language combines some grammatical features: the ways of word formation, the forms of the so-called «broken» many. numbers (it is many. the number of internal education: rasm ‘drawing’ – rusãm ‘drawings’, etc.), a more complete phonological system of consonants. At the same time, South Semitic languages differ from Arabic in some types of verbal conjugation. On the other hand, such grammatical features as the formation of suffixal forms of mnog. the numbers of masculine nouns, the types of conjugation of the foundations of perfect and imperfect, bring Arabic closer to the languages of the North-Central group, especially Aramaic.

In the first period of comparative-historical study of Semitic languages (18-19 centuries) it was believed that the classical Arabic language is the most archaic type of Semitic language, fully preserved lost in other Semitic languages features in phonetics (interdental, voiced and deaf laryngal, pharyngal and uvular phonemes) and morphology (nominal case and verbal modal endings, the complete system of personal verbal forms, the dual number characteristic of both the name and verb). Later, there were opposing points of view (put forward by some Italian and Czech semitologists), according to which phonemes, peculiar only to the Arabic language, are innovations; to innovation were also referred to the form of «broken» many. numbers and some other grammatical forms specific only to Arabic. Modern comparative historical studies of the wider material of afroasiatic languages confirm the Semitic and afroasiatic character of these phonemes and forms.

At the same time, studies have shown that the Arab phonological system also does not represent a complete Pro-Semitic system. The Arab system is characterized by some reduction in the composition of phonemes and their phonetic changes, in particular – palatalization of middle — and rear-language explosive: , in dialects: k > c; as well as glottalization: q >’.

The verbal system BARKING is also already rebuilt prasmytsky system, characterized by verbalization przemyskiego communion, passing in the perfect conjugation.

Phonetic-phonological and grammatical structure of modern Arabic dialects is also characterized by a number of reductions, modifications and innovations.

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STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE BARK
THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM
BARKING is represented by 34 phonemes; 28 of them are consonants and 6 vowels. For vowels characterized the opposition as a : i : u and number ā : ī : ū. For consonants is characteristic of the opposition voiced or voiceless/voicing: t : d; s : z, in velarization (emphaticness) – ; . In relation to simple explosive and spirants there are three interdental correlates:. In turn, the interdental emphatic opposition is simple emphatic -.

Throughout known history BARKING its phonetic system has undergone some changes compared to the period 8-10 century there was a loss of excess of distinctive features and, accordingly, the restructuring of oppositions: the lateral emphatic simple emphatic ; interdental emphatic . In the system of discourse markers is formed by the opposition of voiced or voiceless/voicing – , . The palatalization destroyed the binary opposition g: k in deafness/sonority.

LAYA refers to the so-called monocytosis languages (along with Latin or ancient Greek): a short syllable(glasny) G(lsny) is equal to one sea; a long syllable equal to two SG Moree; Moree two equal and closed syllable GHS. The classical system of versification is built on morschauser principle. The structure of the syllable in the BARKING is limited by a number of rules: there is a ban on an open syllable (i.e., beginning with a vowel; those Arabic words that begin with a vowel in the Russian program, in the Arabic language have an initial consonant-a guttural bow’, called in Arabic «ain»; the name of the letters ain and starts), at the confluence of consonants at the beginning and end of the syllable. Thus, only syllables of SG/SG and SGS structure are possible. In the case of education overlong syllable phonetically it converted to a regular long, for example yaqūl=u ‘he says’, but with the loss of the final vowel, theoretically, the resulting verbal word loses its longitude, i.e. *yaqūl lam > lam yaqul ‘he didn’t say he didn’t say’. The accent in BARKING is weak, falls on the third sea from the end of the word and accordingly moves, if by the end of the word joins the clitic (form, often pronominal, not having an independent accent), for example ‘book’, but kitābū=humā ‘the book of their two’.

It is widely believed that in BARKING (and in Semitic languages in General) consonants and vowels are functionally opposed: consonants are assigned a lexical meaning, and vowels are assigned a grammatical meaning. This statement is not quite correct; the grammatical system of BARKING has a large inventory of affixes consisting not only of vowels, but also of consonants. Wed, for example: figure wives. kind = t; indicators and the dual suffix (as opposed to «broken») plural. numbers = āni / ayni and = ūna/īna; personal prefixes and suffixes of verb conjugation; to convey grammatical meanings, doubling of root consonants in a number of forms is also used.

At the same time, with synchronous (i.e., regardless of its historical development) description of Arabic grammar in verbal bases and derived bases of verbal names, it is really possible to distinguish the root consisting only of consonants, usually three (the so-called three-consonant root: ktb ‘write’, qtl ‘kill’, ‘lm ‘know’, etc.). In non-derivative primary nominal and verbal bases in some cases it is possible to establish a historical root vowel. The last category of words can also include pronouns, prepositions, particles and some other invariant words.

According to lexical and grammatical criteria, there are three main categories of words in BARKING: name, verb and particles. Within a name on some morphological and syntactic signs adjectives are allocated; on lexical-pronouns and numerals. The nominal parts of speech are characterized by the categories of gender (male and female), number (singular, dual and plural), case (cases in Arabic only three – nominative, genitive and accusative, each of them has its own indicator of one of the three qualitatively different vowels – u, i and a, respectively), the state (a certain – with the article ‘al, which may, depending on the phonetic neighborhood to act in various forms, and indefinite), the category of diminution and a relatively superior degree.

The verb is characterized by a system of species-time forms, pledge (also for derived participles), person, number, gender, as well as a system of syntactically conditioned forms, conventionally called moods. In addition, the verb in the BARK is characterized by a special lexical and grammatical category of action characteristics by its intensity, direction, causality, etc. This category has ten bases, called «rocks» or «extended bases» (ie, in addition to the original primary basis, or «breed», there are nine derivatives); for example, ‘ alima (breed I) ‘he knew’, ‘allama (II) ‘he taught’, ‘a =’lama (IV) ‘he reported, let know’, ‘Ista’ lama (X)’ he asked for information’, etc. from the same extended bases formed the corresponding verbal names (or communion) ‘ālim = (I)’ knowledgeable, scientist’, mu = ‘ allim = (II)’ teacher’, etc.

Grammatical ways of word — and-form formation in BARKING are divided into «external», i.e. affixal, not affecting the basis and the root of the word, and «internal», traditionally called «internal flexion» (alternating phonemes), changing the basis of the word. In many cases, the external flexion is combined with the internal one.

According to the traditional morphological classification, Arabic is defined as a inflectional language with elements of fusion and agglutination. According to the traditional syntactic classification as a synthetic language type (see also TYPOLOGY and LINGUISTIC). In the second half of the 20th century, domestic semitology and linguists prefer to describe the way the internal agglutinative inflection as a way to connect discontinuous consonant roots with the same discontinuous vocalic affix «deficom» (mixed cases – konfiks, transfiks, etc.) Hence the term «discontinuous» morphemes (cf. above example with «broken plural»). Accordingly, the typological characteristics of the LAI is changed to the side of the agglutinative technique of morpheme connection.

The main types of non-predictive phrases are represented in the BARK by attributive and genitive combinations with the order of the words «defined-definition». In the attributive phrase definition, as a rule, fully consistent with the determined by gender, number, case and condition: ‘new teacher’. In genitive the phrase first name (defined) does not accept prepositional article ‘al = and loses part of the endings (figure uncertain condition = n, the part of the end of the dual and plural suffix): kitabu l = mu allimati ‘the book of the teacher’ (a certain condition, as for the first and second member of the phrase); or: mu allimatin kitabu ‘the book (some) teacher’ (uncertain status for both members of the phrase).

Simple BARKING sentences can be verbal and nominal. In a verbal sentence, the order of the main members is «predicate – subject-complement». A verb predicate may be preceded by a circumstance; the subject and direct object may be absent. In a noun sentence, the order of the principal members is «subject-predicate», where the predicate can be expressed by a name, a prepositional construct, or an entire sentence, in turn, by a noun or verb, for example: ‘al-kitabu’ Book-new»; «My sister is a teacher «(a personal predicate is likened to a subject in a state: the subject is usually in a certain state, and the predicate is in an indefinite state);» as for the teacher, her sister has already returned » (letters. «Teacher-her sister has already returned»).

Since personal pronouns in indirect cases are represented only by short unstressed forms (clitics), which do not take a logical accent, then orally barking (now – and in writing) after this clitic additionally put a complete independent form of personal pronouns, for example: «This is my book, I», i.e. «This is my (and not someone’s) book» or ‘a RA’yta=huwa? Have you seen him?», i.e. » did you (see him)?»etc.

Polypredicative constructions in BARKING are represented by compound and complex sentences, both allied and non-Union. Examples of Union and non-Union conditional sentences are: «If you want, we will come back»; kul qalilan» Eat a little – live a long time», where the conditional part of a complex sentence is based on the imperative form of the verb, and the part expressing the consequence – on the» conditional » form of the verb.

The position of the dependent clause, as a rule, corresponds to the position of the corresponding simple member of the sentence: the position of the dependent clauses is more free, the definite clauses take the position after the defined clause, the additional clauses-after the verbal predicate, etc.

The secondary predicative relation is observed in simple sentences with accusative constructions of waladu=hu bakiyan type (VIN. case) » Returned son his crying (crying)» or (VIN. case) » she found her sick.» In the first example, in addition to the verb predicate to the subject waladu = hu, between the last nominal form and the participle in wines. case bakiyan the connection, which is characteristic for sentences with nominal predicate: the Subject (Def.)- Predicate (neoprene.), the predicative accusative case is functionally identified with the Russian «creative predicative». In the second example, a secondary predicative relation arises between the direct complement = hā «her», expressed by the pronominal cleric, and the related predicative accusative case of the verbal adjective .

THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE ARABIC LANGUAGE
In the history of the study of the Arabic language, first of all, it is necessary to distinguish the Arabic grammatical tradition itself, represented in the period of its greatest prosperity (8-14 centuries) by several schools. Arabic linguistics in this period sees some of the ideas and concepts of ancient Indian grammatical traditions, however, the features of the Arabic language draw attention to themselves already in the earliest of the Arab philologists. It develops its own original system of concepts, terms and methods of describing linguistic facts. Especially significant development in the national Arabic tradition received lexicography.

In turn, the Arabic grammatical tradition exerts its influence on Western Arabic linguistics, developing from the 16th-18th centuries in Western Europe (first in Spain and Holland, and then in other countries). Despite the fact that the European Arabic studies as well as later 19th century, and Russian (the first Arabic grammar in Russian language was published in 1827), begins to study the facts of the Arabic language in line with the new obsesionada currents (medulloblatoma, comparative-historical linguistics and typology), the influence of the Arabic grammatical tradition is evident in many works, especially in descriptive grammars of classical Arabic throughout the 20th century, however, along with the study of LAI in the 20th century. Western and Russian Arabic linguistics refers to the study of Arabic dialects, resulting in a special direction – Arabic dialectology.

The typological originality of the grammatical system of BARKING, the structure of the root and words, special grammatical methods are of great interest for the structural and typological direction in General linguistics. The lexical richness of the Arabic language, a large number of written monuments and the data of modern Arabic dialects present great opportunities for the further development of comparative historical semitology and afroasiatic linguistics.